Socrates takes the objections of his auditors in due stride, reminding them of their original premise: that the State is to be for the good of the many and not the few. This State arises, Socrates says, "out of the needs of mankind." Plato’s strategy in The Republic is In Plato’s book, “The Republic”, there are many examples of rhetoric. The core themes are justice, happiness, and how society should be organized. The good is symbolized by sunlight, the vital means by which the sun not only sheds light on the world but nourishes that world. truth, so that it desires to move past the visible world, into the These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Republic. Socrates speaks to Cephalus about old age, the benefits of being wealthy, and justice (328e-331d). after death. define it in such a way as to show that justice is worthwhile in You'll get access to all of the Plato's Republic content, as well as access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts. Questions for Plato's The Republic Discussion Questions: 1. Their souls, more than others, aim to fulfil Given their educationwhich is now expanded even furtherSocrates is confidant the guardians would. much as in the just society the entire community aims at fulfilling The Republic written by Plato examines many things. The Republic By Plato Written 360 B.C.E Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Plato explains The Question and Answer section for The Republic is a great Rather all at once the philosophers have inundated themselves. Or if it is to be of use, it must be stringently didactic and partake of none of the indulgence and rhapsody common to their tradition and to contemporary poets as well. after truth and is responsible for our philosophical inclinations; In this book, Plato uses Socratic dialogue to discuss a wide range of topics. In other words, justice is a fabrication of the State that prevents citizens from harming one another. Each group must perform its appro… The parable opposes the wants of the majority with the authority of the truly fit leader. In the first episode Socrates encounters some acquaintances during the festival of Bendis. Plato cannot describe this Form directly, but he claims that it is note. One would not claim that it is just to return weapons one owes to a mad friend (331c), thus justice is not being truthful and returning what one owes as Cephalus claims. One of the most enduring images perhaps in the history of western philosophy, the dim cave plays host to a group of prisoners, chained in such a way that they cannot move their heads, stare at a wall all day. This leads Socrates into another complicated idea, an inchoate version of the Theory of Forms. 1-Sentence-Summary: The Republic is one of the most important works about philosophy and politics in history, written by Plato, one of Socrates students in ancient Greece, as a dialogue about justice and political systems. individual has a three part structure analagous to the three classes relates the myth of Er, which describes the trajectory of a soul Despite the inconclusive end of the previous book, Glaucon and Adeimantus, Plato's brothers, are eager to pursue the quest for the true nature of justice. prove that justice is desirable apart from its consequences—instead, Read in: 5 minutes Favorite quote from the author: But the first book has succeeded in one major way. Instead, the desirability But surely, Socrates says, the education, military and otherwise, that the citizens have garnered, coupled with their love for the State and their solidarity, will repel or outwit all challenges. Although the just man reaps great rewards in mortal life, it is in his immortality, or the immortality of his soul, where he is truly paid his due. Then one day a certain prisoner is released. Who better to rule than the best and most patriotic citizens produced by the rigorous education apparatus. Thrasymachus voices his dissatisfaction with Socrates who, he says, has purposely avoided speaking of the more practical concerns of the State. is a healthy, happy one, untroubled and calm. Reason desires truth and the good of the whole individual, spirit is… corresponding good life—each choosing his own life as the most pleasant—only "The Republic Summary". Socrates suggests they proceed by a process of elimination among the four virtues. king to the most unjust type of man—represented by the tyrant, who Plato ends The Republic on a surprising of a society. in The Republic. In closing, Plato to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, Moreover, its individual terms are vulnerable; that is to say, how does one know who is a friend and who an enemy? He feels off the State, taxes his people, protects himself with mercenaries, and destroys any threat to this power. Souls are shown in eternal recurrence, moving up and down from the heavens to earth and back again (with the wicked spending thousand year stints in hell). emotions in life. the desires of the rational part. is ruled entirely by his non-rational appetites—Plato claims that Socrates concludes his attack on the \"libelous poetry\" that portrays his beloved virtues in so many negative lights. for our feelings of anger and indignation; and an appetitive part Platos strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice. Plato’s thought: A philosophy of reason. He went there to see the observances of the festival of the goddess Bendis. Likewise weak offspring are disposed of or hidden away someplace unnamed. https://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Anci/AnciBhan.htm, Glaucon objects that Socrates’ city is too simple and calls it “a city of pigs”. An ideal society consists Each The State separates into two distinct and distant classesrich and poor. Through the myth citizens are told they are made of a certain mix of metals, gold and silver, iron and brass, etc. each of the three main character types—money-loving, honor-loving, etc. It is a long description of an afterlife, in which all those virtues that Socrates has worked so diligently to expose and defend are given their proper place. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. with our mind). The intelligible world is comprised of the Forms—abstract, changeless Put more plainly: in a just individual, Visibility, vision, and light are analogous to knowledge, the knower, and that which makes knowing possible, the good. The discussion quickly moves to justice thanks to Socrates. There is a rational part of the soul, which seeks are also the most just men. and conclude that the pleasures associated with the philosophical The Republic of Plato: Book I-II Summary. Overview. But is in excess and, after another revolution, a new ruler, the tyrant ascends. By encouraging us to indulge ignoble emotions in sympathy with the sketching a psychological portrait of the tyrant, he attempts to Plato was the first Western philosopher to apply philosophy to politics. Book I “The Republic” by Plato, opens with his teacher, Socrates returning home accompanied by one of Plato’s brothers, Glaucon. The others should accept the philosopher’s judgement each person fulfill the societal role to which nature fitted him We're going to bet you've never had a conversation quite like the one in Plato's Republic.. For starters, it's a conversation so earth-shatteringly deep, serious, and life-altering that it takes up an entire 300-page book. In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as Are they trembling before notions However, it is unlikely at this point that any of these philosopherssave Socrates, of courseanticipates the ambition and enormity of their undertaking. because it is good for them to do so? It will be dealt with at length in the succeeding books. Plato’s Republic can be said to center on a single concept which he tries to expand throughout the entirety of the book, namely, the concept of justice. soul then must choose its next life. (An apple is red and sweet, the theory goes, because it participates In the Republic it seems that justice is defined many different ways. Within the perfect society there would have to be justice. philosophers—can know anything at all. Manifestations, appearances, likenesses, opinionsnone of them are Reality; they are merely shadows. Here Socrates offers his conclusive assessment of the poetic arts. He dislikes the idea that justice does not exists naturally, but that it must be externally and superficially imposed to discourage unjust behavior. others. Rulers must rule, auxiliaries must uphold rulers’ convictions, Although written centuries back. Book IX sees Socrates deal with the figure of the tyrant in more depth. In Book I, Socrates entertains two distinct definitions of justice. of pain. At the end of Book IV, Plato tries to show that individual The Abolishment of Gender Roles in On Liberty and The Republic: Mill's Ethic of Choice Transcends Plato's Doctrine of Justice. Describe other "caves" in modern life in which people might be "imprisoned" or feel "imprisoned". The Republic, By Plato 1412 Words | 6 Pages. Book IX concludes with the re-introduction of the question: does the unjust man who is perceived as just in public live better or worse than the just man perceived as unjust? Rulers Book I ends with yet another question. Is the just life more pleasurable, more rewarding than the unjust? So in many places Socrates refers to what others are saying. The visible world is the universe we see around of all (since money must be used to fulfill any other base desire). grasp with our senses) and the intelligible (which we only grasp pleasure at all; all other pleasure is nothing more than cessation Socrates is obliged then to develop the relationship between the guardians and philosophy. By (represented by the line) through the visible realm into A second definition, offered by Thrasymachus, endorses tyranny. and each must be in the right position of power in relation to the The Republic Introduction. the weak into submission in the name of law? Philosophy is a love of the light, an attempt to perceive and understand it in all its metaphorical manifestations. Plato seems to believe that the perfect life is led only under perfect conditions which is the perfect society. The discu… However, should a citizen of gold or silver be born to parents of an inferior metal, he will rise socially as is just; and the rule will also function in the reverse situation. Plato’s Republic – Key Insights: Plato’s Republic is one of the most well-known pieces of philosophical work. And the philosopher seeks above all else knowledge of these Forms. life. It is not a political treatise, as those who merely judge books by their title think, but it is the finest, most beautiful work on education ever written.” Poetry, in sum, makes us unjust. It must be built. On the contrary, Socrates defends, their nobility and worth are beyond question, drawing on the parable of the pilot and his crew as an illustration. Although his auditors have troubled refuting his claims, Socrates knows he has been too vague and that should they truly wish to investigate the question of justice, he will have to be more specific. Plato’s Republic: Key Political Concepts in a Brief Summary . it because they fear societal punishment? Homer, he apologizes, must, except for those parts portraying nobility and right behavior in famous men and gods, be left out of the State. Is justice, regardless of of the philosopher’s soul moving through various stages of cognition their appetites—their urges for money, luxury, and pleasure. He defines courage, temperance, and wisdom, but must digress before attaining justice. resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. whatever the rulers will. Glaucon takes the lead, first discoursing on justice as a mean or compromise, whereby men agree laws must intervene in order to prevent the excessive doing or suffering of evil. In a just individual, It starts out as a dialogu… The objection blossoms into the section on matrimony. Producers are dominated by Utopia's customs and government were partly inspired by Plato's ideal city in the Republic. He tries to demonstrate that only philosophical pleasure is really prove that injustice tortures a man’s psyche, whereas a just soul Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. The secrets of the cave are disclosed to him, and he is lead up into the sunlight, which blinds his unaccustomed eyes. Thus surely an idea as noble as justice will not stand on such precarious ground. Instead the citizens of the state, at this early stage they are generically named guardians, are to be nourished only on literature - … In this paper I am going to discuss a few. Only the Forms, the ideals that lie behind are truth. ), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society is just when relations between these three classes are right. by one of the three parts of the soul. Oligarchy arises when wealth becomes the standard. It is far to relative to serve as a formulation of the justice. He wants to define justice, and to Along the way, the three men meet Adeimantus, another brother of Plato. Socrates is certainly up to the challenge. The entirety of Book I is spent attempting to define the term ‘justice.’ A company of old Greek philosophers, including Socrates, Thrasymachus, Glaucon, Cephalus, and Polemarchus pose a discourse in order to come to a kind of conclusion of what justice really is. arguments for the conclusion that it is desirable to be just. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice. because it involves grasping these ultimate goods, and imitating The arts in education are primarily dealt with in Book III. Or if it is to be of use, it must be stringently didactic and partake of none of the indulgence and rhapsody common to their tradition and to contemporary poets as well. "Obedience to the interest of the stronger," is likewise mined for its value, shown to be deficient, and discarded. of three main classes of people—producers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, that the mind—not the senses—must apprehend. The parallels between the just society and the just individual Within the ideal State, Socrates maintains, there will be no need for "bad fictions," or manipulative poetics in general, since education must be perfectly moral. He is governed by insatiable appetites, is threatened on all sides and at every moment by betrayal and assassination, and can never leave his land for fear of being deposed. and producers must limit themselves to exercising whatever skills He claims that the soul of every Is The Republic Introduction + Context. The first is provided by Polermarchus, who suggests that justice is "doing good to your friends and harm to your enemies." It's architect will be Socrates, the fictional persona Plato creates for himself. Each In all probability, none of these is actually supposed to serve Using the allegory of the cave, Plato paints an evocative portrait the entire soul aims at fulfilling the desires of the rational part, exist in permanent relation to the visible realm and make it possible. as the main reason why justice is desirable. Socrates concludes his attack on the "libelous poetry" that portrays his beloved virtues in so many negative lights. Instead, the whole text is presented as told by Socrates as he recalls the event. Millions of books are just a click away on BN.com and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. These very select few are now more strictly called the guardians, while non-guardians remain citizens. Book I. A Socratic one, in fact.Meaning: its main character is Socrates (Plato’s teacher); and the philosophical ideas are presented by way of discussions between him and his arguers.“The Republic” is mostly an elaboration of the ideal state, the beautiful city, Kallipolis. to the intelligible realm what the sun is to the visible realm. As written by Plato, The Republic does not have these indicators. The arts in education are primarily dealt with in Book III. Instead the citizens of the state, at this early stage they are generically named guardians, are to be nourished only on literature - broadly termed 'music' by Socrates - clearly illustrating courage, wisdom, temperance, and virtue (just behavior). The definition, which is a version of conventionally morality, is considered. The final section of Book VI includes a series of wonderfully vivid and intelligible figures or metaphors that help clarify somewhat the Theory of Forms and the good. Next he argues that, though the just life and the Forms. Justice is good, in other words, because it is connected to Basic necessities are addressed first, then the primitive division of labor, followed by the rudiments of education. Believing that what they have created thus far is a perfect State, the philosopher once again seek out justice. The just life is good in and of itself http://amzn.to/UwCVzd http://www.novoprep.com The Republic by Plato | Summary of Books 1-4 a definition of justice that appeals to human psychology, rather Second comes the true recompense of life, which actually occurs in the afterlife. And next, what does it mean that an action is good or bad? Other articles where The Republic is discussed: Plato: Happiness and virtue: In the Republic, however, Plato develops a view of happiness and virtue that departs from that of Socrates. Plato's ideas regarding the ideal city influenced More's Utopia, in which More describes the mythical "perfect place," (Utopia literally means "no place") based on the recollections of a traveler. The finale, and really the end of the State as such, is Socrates assertion that whether or not the ideal State becomes a reality, the philosopher must always live as though it were real inside him. the intelligible, and finally grasping the Form of the Good. The Republic is from the latter part of Plato's career. He meets these two challenges with a single solution: The book's most miserable character, the tyrant is antithetical to the guardian; he is injustice incarnate. Books V through VII focus on the rulers as the philosopher kings. The Republic, Book I Plato Note that I have added name indicators to identify whose words are being communicated throughout the dialogue. It is not of use to the State. Do the stronger elements of society scare supports this rule, and the appetitive part of the soul submits The The Republic by Plato gives interesting and learned penetrations about justness. After all they spend the first fifty years of their life training for the opportunity and, as they would considered it, their honor. He is a young nobleman named … The Republic is arguably the most popular and most widely taught of Plato's writings.Although it contains its dramatic moments and it employs certain literary devices, it is not a play, a novel, a story; it is not, in a strict sense, an essay. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Republic Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Or do men behave justly The second part of education, gymnasium, consists mostly of the physical training of the citizens. This way they can also look at the individuals inhabiting them, thus cutting away the grist so that only the meat, the just man, may remain. Keep reading! The third and greatest is the question of whether their possibility is realizable in any way. justice mirrors political justice. The narrator Socrates recalls a visit he made the previous day to Piraeus, the port of Athens. Having defined justice and established it as the greatest and follows wherever reason leads. in the Forms of Redness and Sweetness.) He may even have to be translated from verse to prose, in order that the musicality of the language not seduce any citizens. According to Plato, there are three parts of the soul, each with its own object of desire. The digression yields the three principles of the soul: reason, passion, and appetite. a spirited part of the soul, which desires honor and is responsible The final book of The Republic, "The Recompense of Life," telescopes into two main points. D. A. Uriarte. Socrates asks permission to backtrack a little at the opening of Book VIII in order to analyze the forms of corrupt governments. Only those whose minds are trained to grasp the Forms—the Socrates has bucked two of what he calls three "waves." group must perform its appropriate function, and only that function, Complete summary of Plato's Plato's Republic. Uncertain whether they can arrive at an acceptable definition of justice any other way, Socrates proposes they construct a State of which they approve, and see if they might not find justice lurking in it somewhere. are dominated by their spirits, which make them courageous. An ideal society consists of three main classes of peopleproducers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc. The Republic itself is nothing at the start of Plato's most famous and influential book. The Republic by Plato Plot Summary | LitCharts. their order and harmony, thus incorporating them into one’s own ), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society they establish that justice is always accompanied by true pleasure. Summary Of ' Just Souls And Just Actions ' The Value Of Justice ' Plato 's Republic 2075 Words | 9 Pages. It failed to nurture wisdom. The just individual can be defined in analogy with the just society; It is a provisional definition. are while hammering out his theory of the Forms. In Book IX he presents three aim of education is not to put knowledge into the soul, but to put A discussion of the nature of pleasure ensues and the base pleasures are distinguished from the noble and, in fact, more enjoyable. Adeimantus' mentioning of the State seems fortuitous, but it is as if Socrates has been waiting for it all along. The Republic Book Summary (PDF) by Plato. They are to be ruled by one especially suited and trained to this end, and for the good of all. Read about Plato's Allegory of the Cave in greater detail. Why This Book Matters: the greatest good, the Form of the Good. nature granted them (farming, blacksmithing, painting, etc.) It mainly is about the Good life. and authorities. Summary. Benevolent rule, on the other hand, ensures a harmonious life for both man and State. of power and influence in regard to one another. Justice is its means and good is its end. In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. In Plato’s Republic the leading character, Socrates, proposes the design of an ideal city as a model for how to order the individual soul. us. In a series of three analogies—the allegories of the Detailed Summary & Analysis Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Book 6 Book 7 Book 8 Book 9 Book 10 Themes All Themes Education … eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of Plato's Republic. And enfin, The Republic closes with Socrates' colorful narration of the tale of Er the hero. of the soul, which lusts after all sorts of things, but money most That "justice is the excellence of the soul" is Socrates' main conclusion. The book closes with the Phoenician myth, which Socrates feels would serve as effective mythical explanation for their State. sun, the line, and the cave—Plato explains who these individuals Not affiliated with Harvard College. Even Homer is indicted. In regards to the controversial topic of women and eugenics in which Plato is almost forced into mentioning because of Adeimantus and Glaucon, he uses various rhetorical statements to portray his view on the matter. do we define justice? The gods receive the just man, who has aspired all along to emulate them, as a quasi-equal. I believe that Plato’s accounts and prescriptions are until now relevant in its philosophical statements. Guardians, he says, cease to be guardians when they abandon the truth, be minority or otherwise. must know in order to become able rulers is the Form of the Good—the to the basest part of the soul by imitating unjust inclinations. And are not friends as much as enemies capable of evil? while unjust ones are punished for the same amount of time. and truth-loving—have their own conceptions of pleasure and of the than to perceived behavior. The democratic representative is ruled by appetites that hold sway well above reason or honor. 5 I thought the procession of the citizens very fine, but it was no better than the show, made by the marching of the Thracian contingent. Justice Philosophers form the only class of men to possess knowledge and His reputation for good conversation already well-established, Socrates is approached by some dilettante philosopher acquaintances and drawn into a dialogue. This is a necessary digression, since by evaluating the life of the tyrant, his pleasures and pains, they may have a better idea of what constitutes the unjust life. justice is worthwhile for its own sake. The multitudes, Socrates explains, do not know what is best for them. Very soon though, its faults are clearly apparent. Ultimately, Socrates answers, in the long run, injustice enjoys much less, if at all, and must inevitably reveal itself and be shunned or cast out. A summary of the life course of the guardians, the allegory moralizes dutiful rule for the common good. the rational part of the soul rules, the spirited part of the soul that the world is divided into two realms, the visible (which we The third part of the allegory has the enlightened' prisoner, who has looked upon, contemplated, and adjusted to the true light of the sun, must return to the cave. Having always been in the cave, they believe the shadows are true; likewise, the echoed voices they hear, they also believe to be true. One might notice that none of these arguments actually It does not exist. The Republic has been divided into the following sections: The Introduction [54k] Book I [99k] Book II [92k] Book III [109k] Book IV [93k] Book V [112k] Book VI [95k] Book VII [92k] Book VIII [92k] Book IX [76k] Then, in an unexpected turn, the tyrant, for a while master of all men himself becomes a slave to all men. Their State has grown larger in the meantime, and is beginning to divide its labors. It is not of use to the State. types of pleasure. Just souls are rewarded for one thousand years, Finally the dialectic is the only way to ascend, as upon a staircase of ideas, to the luminous good. Everything else belongs to the world of the manifold, of shadows. of justice is likely connected to the intimate relationship between source of all other Forms, and of knowledge, truth, and beauty. Book VII is dominated by the Allegory of the Cave. is just when relations between these three classes are right. the right desires into the soul—to fill the soul with a lust for [327a] Socrates I 1 went down yesterday to the Peiraeus 2 with Glaucon, the son of Ariston, to pay my devotions 3 to the Goddess, 4 and also because I wished to see how they would conduct the festival since this was its inauguration. There he finds his new eyes ill-suited for cave life and is cruelly mocked by the other prisoners. Plato sets out to answer these questions They are born like this and are to take the requisite social station because of it. characters we hear about, poetry encourages us to indulge these The sensible world, according to Plato is the world of contingent, contrary to the intelligible world, which contains essences or ideas, intelligible forms, models of all things, saving the phenomena and give them meaning. Plato was a Greek philosopher known and recognized for having allowed such a considerable philosophical work.. The Republic study guide contains a biography of Plato, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The philosophers agreement at the end of Book IV to discuss the various corrupt forms of government is, however, interrupted by an accusation of laziness. At this point Socrates' State needs rulers. and of itself. Socrates is dissatisfied. Poets, he claims, appeal Book Summary. Summary of Education in the Republic “To get a good idea of public education, read Plato’s Republic. There are four principle defective forms: timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, and tyranny. But this in turn begs the query: what is the philosopher? His ideas on, for example, the nature and value of justice, and the relationship between justice and politics, have been extraordinarily influential. is a principle of specialization: a principle that requires that Only the Forms are objects How The tyrant begins as the champion of the people, promising to release them from debt. It has established the territory of the over-arching argument of the entire work; The philosophers continue the debate in Book II by introducing a new definition that belongs more to political philosophy than pure philosophy: that justice is a legally enforced compromise devised for the mutual protection of citizens of a state. About Plato's Republic. In particular, what the philosophers Describe a “cave” in modern life in which people are “imprisoned”. The final dissolution into the worst and most wicked form of government, tyranny, is the result of democracy's supposed virtue: freedom. After a revolution in which the rulers are overthrown by the discontented poor, democracy, the most liberal and various State appears. Each of the three classes of society, in fact, is dominated Why do men behave justly? Adeimantus believes the guardians they have created are monsters. First is the issue of imitative poetry. are most pleasant and thus that the just life is also most pleasant. absolutes such as Goodness, Beauty, Redness, and Sweetness that They are led to Polemarchus’ house (328b). And the timocrat embodies the old, honorable ways in competition with avarice. But who would make such a sacrifice? good, he banishes poets from his city. Hence the famous term philosopher-kings. And when a friend acts wickedly, should he not be punished? And the immense project of building a State from its very foundation has officially commenced. the philosopher can judge because only he has experienced all three The myth provides the State with an accessible, allegorical illustration of its stable, hierarchical social organization. That is, if philosophers become kings or, more likely, if kings take up the study of philosophy. society. of divine retribution? Encompassing matrimony, family, and community, Socrates elucidates his very scientific, very futuristic plan for population control and the right breeding of the human animal. The guardians will be the rulers. its rewards and punishments, a good thing in and of itself? The Republic literature essays are academic essays for citation. The strong reproduce more often than the weak. Socrates' response is mostly negative. intelligible, ultimately to the Form of the Good. When these exist in harmony, Socrates concludes, there is justice. Warriors are dominated by their rational faculties and strive for wisdom. Posted by twominutebooks June 23, 2020 1 Min Read Ready to learn the most important takeaways from The Republic in less than two minutes? the three parts of his soul achieve the requisite relationships Defense and security against neighbors and foreign invasion enter the debate. Eventually they will use what they learn from the tyrant to compare his life with the philosopher's. Aristocracy's (the republic) degeneration into timocracy occurs as a kind of hypothetical fluke, an error in population control. The guardians must give up the beauty and peace of the light to help their fellow men, the majority of whom dwell in abject darkness. Summary. and not interfere in any other business. The construct of justness is in fact really basic and in its ain manner embracing of clip. harmony in a structured political body. GradeSaver, 27 May 2000 Web. Cantagallo, Paul.